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The energy supply industry is similar to other product supply chain. It consists of three parts: generation (upstream), distribution (midstream) and retail (downstream). The mitigation acts can be conducted in all parts of the supply industry, especially in supply and distribution. The efficiency improvements of supply and distribution systems, fuel switching from coal to natural gas and adoption of distributed generator from renewable energy can reduce the emission on the upstream of the energy supply industry.
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
Carbon capture and storage is an integrated suite of technologies which capture and store large quantities of carbon dioxide from being emitted into the atmosphere. CCS is getting more acceptance due to the ability, as a low-carbon solution, to protect the climate and to increase energy efficiency by recovering fossil fuel in the form of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). This technology can improve energy security and increase income.
CCS consists of 3 major components:
- Capture: This component is related to the separation and capture of carbon dioxide emissions from carbon dioxide intensive industries such as power plant facilities, steel industry and cement industry.
- Transport: This process involves with compressing and transporting carbon dioxide emissions via pipelines or ships. The gas transportation system requires a network similar to the existing natural gas transportation system with proven and safe transport at long distance.
- Storage: Carbon dioxide is stored in chosen offshore and onshore sites across the world. For example, large and convenient offshore carbon dioxide storage has been developed in Europe. Carbon dioxide storage is not different from natural gas storage.
CCS projects have been successfully in operation across the world. In 2014, 22 large CCS projects, a 50% increase since 2011, were established. Approximately, the carbon dioxide capture capacity of these 22 projects is around 40 million tons per year, which equivalent to 8 million cars being taken off the road. Examples of CCS projects that are in operation and construction are presented below.
|Project||Location||Carbon capture source||Transportation site||Carbon capture storage||Carbon capture capacity|
|Alberta Carbon Trunk Line||Canada||Ammonia and fertilizer production||Pipeline||Onshore||0.3-0.6|
|Air Products Steam Methane Reformer EOR||United States||Hydrogen production||Pipeline||Onshore||1.0|
|Celedonia Clean Energy||England||Power generation (bituminous coal)||Pipeline||Offshore||3.8|
|Huaneng GreenGen IGCC||China||Power generation (sub-bituminous coal)||Pipeline||Onshore||2.0|
|Sleipner CO2 Storage||Norway||Natural gas production||No transport required (direct injection)||Offshore||0.85|
|Uthmaniyah CO2 EOR Demonstration||Saudi Arabia||Natural gas production||Pipeline||Onshore||0.8|
- EPPO. 2015. Power Development Plan 2015-2036. http://www.eppo.go.th/power/PDP2015/PDP2015_Eng.pdf
- Energynewscenter. 2016. http://energynewscenter.com/index.php/news/detail/81
- IIED. 2015. The Case study: The Thai Smart Grid. http://www.iie.or.th/iie2014/images/postdoc/files/3.%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%93%E0%B8%B5%E0%B8%A8%E0%B8%B6%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%A9%E0%B8%B2%20Smart%20Grid%20%E0%B8%82%E0%B8%AD%E0%B8%87%E0%B9%84%E0%B8%97%E0%B8%A2.pdf
- Carbon Capture and Storage Association (n.d.) CSS in Europe: A quick guide. Supersberger, N., Esken, A., Fischedick, M., & Schüwer, D. (2006). Carbon Capture and Storage-Solution to Climate Change. Working paper. Wuppertal Institut. Wuppertal.(KyotoPlus-Papers). Online: http://www.wupperinst.org (20.07. 2009).
- Global CCS Institute: https://www.globalccsinstitute.com/projects/