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Adaptation activities in Thailand
The activities related to climate change adaptation started since 2005 on research basis. The main consideration was to link the carbon sequestration from community-based agro-forestry from a community in Sakon Nakorn province with the carbon financial market. In 2008, the climate change issues started to reach out to people through mass media such as television and broadcasting (Bhaktikul, 2012).
In 2010 Thailand mentioned in its first communication document to the UNFCCC that the agriculture, freshwater management and coastal regions were the main adaptation measures. Later in 2011, the adaptive capacity for vulnerability and extreme events were Thai’s greatest challenges (ONREPP; 2011, Rockefeller; 2015).
In 2015, the prioritized adaptation efforts reported to UNFCCC by the office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning .The short list of adaptation efforts included the promote and strengthen the practices of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), promotion of sustainable agriculture and its good practices (GAP), increasing the capacity to manage climate-related health impacts and building up of adaptive capacity for local communities. Furthermore, the agriculture, water resource management and modeling tools regarding agricultural and water resource management sector were in urgent technologies that are in need of adaptation implementation. In near future, the further concrete adaptation acts will be proposed in these sectors (ONREPP, 2015).
Adaptation Activities in other countries
There are various types of adaptation efforts initiated in the world. The actors range from individuals, communities, governments and the private sectors. To implement these measures, the integration between institutional and behavioral responses, technology, and design of climate resilient infrastructure is imperative. The examples of adaptation efforts by region which undertaken relative to the present climate risks show in Table 1 (IPCC, 2007).
Table 1: Examples of adaptation initiatives by region (IPCC, 2007)
|REGION Country Reference||Climate-related stress||Adaptation practices|
El Raey (2004)
|Sea-level rise||Adoption of National Climate Change Action Plan integrating climate change concerns into national policies; adoption of Law 4/94 requiring Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for project approval and regulating setback distances for coastal infrastructure; installation of hard structures in areas vulnerable to coastal erosion.|
Osman-Elasha et al. (2006)
|Drought||Expanded use of traditional rainwater harvesting and water conserving techniques; building of shelter-belts and wind-breaks to improve resilience of rangelands; monitoring of the number of grazing animals and cut trees; set-up of revolving credit funds.|
|Drought||National government programmes to re-create employment options after drought; capacity building of local authorities; assistance to small subsistence farmers to increase crop production.|
|ASIA & OCEANIA|
OECD (2003a); Pouliotte (2006)
|Sea-level rise; salt-water intrusion||Consideration of climate change in the National Water Management Plan; building of flow regulators in coastal embankments; use of alternative crops and low-technology water filters.|
Lasco et al. (2006)
|Drought; floods||Adjustment of silvicultural treatment schedules to suit climate variations; shift to drought-resistant crops; use of shallow tube wells; rotation method of irrigation during water shortage; construction of water impounding basins; construction of fire lines and controlled burning; adoption of soil and water conservation measures for upland farming.|
|Sea-level rise; storm surges||Capacity building for shoreline defence system design; introduction of participatory risk assessment; provision of grants to strengthen coastal resilience and rehabilitation of infrastructures; construction of cyclone-resistant housing units; retrofit of buildings to improved hazard standards; review of building codes; reforestation of mangroves.|
|Drought; salt-water intrusion||Rainwater harvesting; leakage reduction; hydroponic farming; bank loans allowing for purchase of rainwater storage tanks.|
(1) Ford and Smit (2004)
(2) Mehdi (2006)
|(1) Permafrost melt; change in ice cover||Changes in livelihood practices by the Inuit, including: change of hunt locations; diversification of hunted species; use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) technology; encouragement of food sharing.|
|(2) Extreme temperatures||Implementation of heat health alert plans in Toronto, which include measures such as: opening of designated cooling centres at public locations; information to the public through local media; distribution of bottled water through the Red Cross to vulnerable people; operation of a heat information line to answer heat-related questions; availability of an emergency medical service vehicle with specially trained staff and medical equipment.|
Easterling et al. (2004)
|Sea-level rise||Land acquisition programmes taking account of climate change (e.g., New Jersey Coastal Blue Acres land acquisition programme to acquire coastal lands damaged/prone to damages by storms or buffering other lands; the acquired lands are being used for recreation and conservation); establishment of a ‘rolling easement’ in Texas, an entitlement to public ownership of property that ‘rolls’ inland with the coastline as sea-level rises; other coastal policies that encourage coastal landowners to act in ways that anticipate sea-level rise.|
|Mexico and Argentina
Wehbe et al. (2006)
|Drought||Adjustment of planting dates and crop variety (e.g., inclusion of drought-resistant plants such as agave and aloe); accumulation of commodity stocks as economic reserve; spatially separated plots for cropping and grazing to diversify exposures; diversification of income by adding livestock operations; set-up/provision of crop insurance; creation of local financial pools (as alternative to commercial crop insurance).|
Government of the Netherlands (1997 and 2005)
|Sea-level rise||Adoption of Flooding Defence Act and Coastal Defence Policy as precautionary approaches allowing for the incorporation of emerging trends in climate; building of a storm surge barrier taking a 50 cm sea-level rise into account; use of sand supplements added to coastal areas; improved management of water levels through dredging, widening of river banks, allowing rivers to expand into side channels and wetland areas; deployment of water storage and retention areas; conduct of regular (every 5 years) reviews of safety characteristics of all protecting infrastructure (dykes, etc.); preparation of risk assessments of flooding and coastal damage influencing spatial planning and engineering projects in the coastal zone, identifying areas for potential (land inward) reinforcement of dunes.|
|Austria, France, Switzerland
Austrian Federal Govt. (2006); Direction du Tourisme (2002); Swiss Confederation (2005)
|Upward shift of natural snow-reliability line; glacier melt||Artificial snow-making; grooming of ski slopes; moving ski areas to higher altitudes and glaciers; use of white plastic sheets as protection against glacier melt; diversification of tourism revenues (e.g., all-year tourism).|
|Permafrost melt; debris flows||Erection of protection dams in Pontresina (Switzerland) against avalanches and increased magnitude of potential debris flows stemming from permafrost thawing.|
|Floods; sea-level rise||Coastal realignment under the Essex Wildlife Trust, converting over 84 ha of arable farmland into salt marsh and grassland to provide sustainable sea defences; maintenance and operation of the Thames Barrier through the Thames Estuary 2100 project that addresses flooding linked to the impacts of climate change; provision of guidance to policy makers, chief executives, and parliament on climate change and the insurance sector (developed by the Association of British Insurers).|
- IPCC. 2007. Climate Change 2007: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. https://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch17s17-2-2.html.
- Bhaktikul, K. 2012. State of Knowledge on Climate Change and Adaptation Activities in Thailand. Social and Behavioral Sciences. 40. 701 – 708.
- Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning. 2011. Thailand’s second National Communication. https://unfccc.int/files/national_reports/non-annex_i_natcom/submitted_natcom/application/pdf/snc_thailand.pdf