Language : ไทย
In addition to the role of agriculture sector in climate change adaptation, promoting its role in climate change mitigation is a parallel strategy. The actions should be taken without compromising on overall food security and energy security. The vitality of greenhouse gas emissions reduction from this sector lies in the reduction of methane and nitrous oxide emissions by improving agricultural management. Notwithstanding, this is not an easy task. In some circumstances, it is accompanied with higher cost. There are options that can enhance Thailand’s agriculture sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions as follows.
- Experiment and promote alternative rice cultivation particularly drought resistant types or employ method that requires low water consumption according to systems of rice intensification.
- Promote the use of technology, for example, reducing nitrous oxide inhibitor in cultivation and animal raising.
- Avoid and reduce composting that contributes to methane generation through knowledge sharing and suggesting alternatives to farmers.
- Adjust agricultural pattern from mass crop production to high-valued batch to increase resource use efficiency and better return to farmers.
- Initiate pilot project to support Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) in agriculture “using fertilizer to reduce cost” or “customizing fertilizer” by analyzing chemical properties of soil to produce chemical fertilizer more suitable to soil condition than standard fertilizer. Customizing fertilizer can contribute to healthier soil which usually varies in different areas. This is because it effectively reduces nitrous oxide emission, an important cause of greenhouse effect, from the use of chemical fertilizer.
- Implement measures that promote environmentally friendly trade and investment. At the initial stage, this can be voluntary pilot program focusing on medium-sized and smallholder farmers. Revising regulation to promote investments on greenhouse gas emissions reduction is necessary, starting from the policy which encourages the implementation of “Carbon Footprint Reduction Label” on key agricultural products, for example, jasmine rice, chicken and organic produce. This way, farmers’ competitive advantage is actively promoted.
- Promote the role of local governments and other associations to engage and plays more role in protecting and restoring forest areas, protecting important agricultural areas especially granary in order to maintain the country’s food source. For example, enacting legislations to control the expansion of factories or special size buildings in the plentiful rice paddies especially those central plain.
- Put in place voluntary registration system to monitor greenhouse gas emissions reduction from all sizes of business sectors as well as consider developing compensation scheme of particular activities. For example, selling carbon credits to private sector volunteering for the pilot carbon offsetting projects.
Apart from the above measures that are useful for farmers to adapt to climate change, implementing the measures to cope with climate change in agricultural ecosystem at the national level is tremendously essential. Therefore, the timeframe for the action plan should be divided into 3 phases: short, medium and long terms as follows.
Short Term (1-2 years)
- Sharing knowledge with farmers, government officers and private sector to respond and adapt to climate change which impacts agricultural sector. There are several ways, for example, television or radio programs, newspapers, knowledge-sharing handbook, meeting and training.
- Providing financial support to aid the construction of small-sized water sources in order to increase production capacity.
- Distributing good quality seeds to farmers facing agricultural disasters.
- Implementing price guarantee scheme for agricultural products damaged from natural disasters.
Medium Term (3-5 years)
- Utilizing Land Development Department’s data regarding zoning areas suitable for growing 13 types of industrial crops including rice, cassava, sugarcane, corn for animal feed production, oil palm, pineapple, longan, rambutan, mangosteen, durian, coconut and coffee. Applying the data to formulate adaptation approach to support farmers who grow the crops in the areas.
- Promoting sustainable agricultural practices earnestly, for example, integrated agriculture, New Theory agriculture, organic agriculture and agroforestry, particularly on pricing scheme for organic products and access to market.
- Ensuring access to electricity in agricultural areas where water is abundant but lacks of electricity therefore preventing water use.
Long Term (6-10 years)
- Research on industrial crop development on aspects related to drought or flood resistant; higher yield; and disease and pest resistant.
- Research and development on water efficiency in growing industrial crops.
- Expanding medium-sized and large-sized irrigated areas.
- Developing climate warning network to enable the use of data in decision making process in each area.